I can confirm the workaround from the other thread. By default, WAN is on VLAN 2, while LAN is on VLAN 1.
I added a third entry in the VLAN list, tagged it at CPU, untagged it at LAN port 2 (and set the same port to off under VLAN 1). Next, I configured a new interface on the 192.168.2.1 subnet and enabled a DHCP server.
Then I ran into the first bug. It seems like the labeling on the back of the router and in the switch interface is reversed. So port 1 on the back, was port 4 in LEDE, port 2 on the back was port 3 in LEDE, etc. So naturally, connecting my PC on port 2 did not result in the VLAN being used. Connecting it to port 3, however, successfully resulted in my PC getting an IP in the 192.168.2.X range.
Next, I renamed the VLAN id from 3 to 4 with the exact same settings otherwise. Then reconfigured the newly created interface to use VLAN 4 and.... Nothing. The VLAN was not working. I was not getting an IP adres.
So to test the workaround, I added a new VLAN entry. I used the 3rd entry to configure a dummy VLAN 3 (tagged at CPU, off everywhere else) and used the fourth entry to configure VLAN4 as I did in the previous test. This resulted in a successful connection and an IP in the earlier mentioned 192.168.2.x range again.
I also tried the master branch to see if I could get it to work there without a workaround (VLAN 4 as a third entry, without a dummy VLAN), but I was unsuccessful. However, I could not use LUCI because I do not have a working WAN connection to install it, so I could not use LUCI to double check my settings and I am not that good with UCI. However, I think the settings should have been good, since I configured it on 17.01.0 in LUCI, and then flashed the latest snapshot while keeping the settings.
Summary: Port numbers on the back of the router are in reversed order compared to the port numbers in the LEDE switch GUI. VLAN IDs needs to be identical to their entry position for them to work (starting at an index of 1).