Volume kernel not found! Error

[Target Device]
I am currently conducting a test to install OpenWRT after buying the product from Aliexpress.

[Purchasing site]
https://ko.aliexpress.com/item/4000738849310.html

[ History ]
There is no data left now, but OpenWRT was installed at first after purchase, and I accessed the web page and confirmed that OpenWRT was installed targeting Qxwlan E2600ACC2.

So, I flashed the systupgrade.bin compiled in advance for E2600AC C2 on the web page, but the following error occurred.

Main message : Volume kernel not found!

Format: Log Type - Time(microsec) - Message - Optional Info
Log Type: B - Since Boot(Power On Reset),  D - Delta,  S - Statistic
S - QC_IMAGE_VERSION_STRING=BOOT.BF.3.1.1-00096
S - IMAGE_VARIANT_STRING=DAABANAZA
S - OEM_IMAGE_VERSION_STRING=CRM
S - Boot Config, 0x00000021
S - Core 0 Frequency, 0 MHz
B -       262 - PBL, Start
B -      1342 - bootable_media_detect_entry, Start
B -      1683 - bootable_media_detect_success, Start
B -      1697 - elf_loader_entry, Start
B -      5102 - auth_hash_seg_entry, Start
B -      7265 - auth_hash_seg_exit, Start
B -    577408 - elf_segs_hash_verify_entry, Start
B -    693781 - PBL, End
B -    693806 - SBL1, Start
B -    782373 - pm_device_init, Start
D -         6 - pm_device_init, Delta
B -    783894 - boot_flash_init, Start
D -     63238 - boot_flash_init, Delta
B -    851325 - boot_config_data_table_init, Start
D -      3866 - boot_config_data_table_init, Delta - (419 Bytes)
B -    858509 - clock_init, Start
D -      7565 - clock_init, Delta
B -    870601 - CDT version:2,Platform ID:8,Major ID:1,Minor ID:0,Subtype:1
B -    874090 - sbl1_ddr_set_params, Start
B -    879078 - cpr_init, Start
D -         2 - cpr_init, Delta
B -    883570 - Pre_DDR_clock_init, Start
D -         4 - Pre_DDR_clock_init, Delta
D -     13149 - sbl1_ddr_set_params, Delta
B -    896849 - pm_driver_init, Start
D -         2 - pm_driver_init, Delta
B -    967283 - sbl1_wait_for_ddr_training, Start
D -        29 - sbl1_wait_for_ddr_training, Delta
B -    982826 - Image Load, Start
D -    134956 - QSEE Image Loaded, Delta - (262104 Bytes)
B -   1118281 - Image Load, Start
D -      1444 - SEC Image Loaded, Delta - (2048 Bytes)
B -   1128532 - Image Load, Start
D -    204269 - APPSBL Image Loaded, Delta - (417755 Bytes)
B -   1333223 - QSEE Execution, Start
D -        58 - QSEE Execution, Delta
B -   1339418 - SBL1, End
D -    647722 - SBL1, Delta
S - Flash Throughput, 2003 KB/s  (682326 Bytes,  340559 us)
S - DDR Frequency, 672 MHz
U-Boot 2012.07 [Barrier Breaker r48529,r48529] (Nov 26 2019 - 13:52:10)

smem ram ptable found: ver: 1 len: 3
DRAM:  256 MiB
machid : 0x8010001
NAND:  ONFI device found
ID = 9580f12c
Vendor = 2c
Device = f1
SF: Detected W25Q16 with page size 4 KiB, total 2 MiB
ipq_spi: page_size: 0x100, sector_size: 0x1000, size: 0x200000
130 MiB
MMC:   qca_mmc: 0
In:    serial
Out:   serial
Err:   serial
machid: 8010001
flash_type: 0
Net:   MAC0 addr:78:a2:5c:50:60:20
PHY ID1: 0x4d
PHY ID2: 0xd0b1
ipq40xx_ess_sw_init done
eth0
Hit any key to stop autoboot:  0
Creating 1 MTD partitions on "nand0":
0x000000000000-0x000004000000 : "mtd=0"
UBI: attaching mtd2 to ubi0
UBI: physical eraseblock size:   131072 bytes (128 KiB)
UBI: logical eraseblock size:    126976 bytes
UBI: smallest flash I/O unit:    2048
UBI: VID header offset:          2048 (aligned 2048)
UBI: data offset:                4096
UBI: attached mtd2 to ubi0
UBI: MTD device name:            "mtd=0"
UBI: MTD device size:            64 MiB
UBI: number of good PEBs:        512
UBI: number of bad PEBs:         0
UBI: max. allowed volumes:       128
UBI: wear-leveling threshold:    4096
UBI: number of internal volumes: 1
UBI: number of user volumes:     3
UBI: available PEBs:             15
UBI: total number of reserved PEBs: 497
UBI: number of PEBs reserved for bad PEB handling: 5
UBI: max/mean erase counter: 3/1
Volume kernel not found!
qca_mmc: 0
(IPQ40xx) #

I tried to boot the sysupgrade.bin file provided on the OpenWRT homepage to tftpboot, but the result was the same. What's the problem here?

Well, you found out the hard way that your device -unsurprisingly- isn't a Qxwlan E2600AC C2 and bricked it in the process. Embedded devices are not generic, they each need their own firmware, specially tailored to their specific hardware quirks, partition maps, firmware formats, GPIO assignments, etc. pp.

…and by blindly force-flashing a wrong image, you made it much harder to reverse engineer and develop the device specific parts for it.

Thank you for your quick response.
I understand what you said. However, what I don't understand is that if the device uses the same SoC, it will not work with wifi, usb, or led, and the firmware will be installed.

If so, is it also common for OpenWRT not to boot even with the same SoC?

It's not common, it's expected.

And its not an Openwrt issue.

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