Radio frequencies

what are the allowed radio frequencies which we can utilize without any govt licensing?

FM/AM=> cant broadcast, not allowed without license
2G/4G/5G=>without license cant start own network

Is there any medium to wirelessly transfer data other than radio frequencies?

Direct light transmission: e.g.:

(there are also commercial solutions available) though this requires direct line of sight between transmitter(s) and receiver(s).

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What is govt licensing?

The ISM bands are free to use and, depending on the frequency and power, you can achieve quite a long range (e.g. LoRaWAN, with limited data rate). Is there a specific goal you would like to achieve?

You may want to add which country laws you're trying to adhere to. From my rather limited experience even I know that the laws for radio transmissions are different in different countries of the world.

What government?

  • Frequencies below 9 kHz
  • ISM (Industrial, Scientific, and Medical) band 13.553 - 13.567 MHz
  • ISM band 26.957 - 27.283 MHz
  • Citizens’ Band is now unlicensed in many jurisdictions
  • ISM band 40.66 - 40.7 MHz
  • FRS - Family Radio Service No license is required but legal operation requires the use of unmodified type-accepted transceivers.
  • ISM band 902 - 928 MHz
  • ISM band 2.4 - 2.5 GHz
  • ISM band 5.725 - 5.875 GHz
  • ISM band 24 - 24.25 GHz
  • Frequencies greater than 275 GHz

Keep in mind that unlicensed does not mean unregulated. Most of these bands have power level restrictions.

Also note that if you are interested personally in data transmission, then there are a lot of bands that having an amateur radio license opens up access to.

Infrared, visible, and ultra-violet light will be the major players. When I was in high school (Lord, back in '88), I made a pulse frequency modulation laser-diode comm set that would transmit a couple kilometers. You also have the option of ultrasonics, along the line of a Gertrude, where you can heterodyne an audio signal to upshift it in frequency. You can get surprising range from this.

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