I have a Netgear ReadyNAS Duo v2 on which I recently installed 22.03.4 built from the Imagebuilder. 6TB WD60EFRX disks work well on the SATA ports, but I'm seeing I/O errors on the first access to 14TB WD140EFGX. The 14TB drives are recognized on boot/insertion, but first attempt to access them fails in error - I have not save the error status yet.
I don't have an answer for you, but I'd check to see if the disk controller on the NAS can handle drives that large. The largest supported drive (as advertised when the device was supported by Netgear) was 4TB. A quick search seems to show that there may be a 12TB limit in the (stock) firmware), but it's not entirely clear what the controller can actually support. So, I'd recommend doing a bit of research on the actual limits that people have reported.
I did attempt using the 14TB driver on the stock Netgear firmware 5.3.13 (IIRC) without success. Without consulting my notes, I recall the 6TB drive claimed to sync to the 14TB successfully, but it actually hadn't.
With the age, general creakiness and unsupported nature of the stock Netgear firmware, I was delighted to give OpenWRT a spin. With the 6TB drives, I now have the NAS working and see overall better performance as a back-up server, but I'm ready to re-visit why the 14TB drives immediately result in an I/O error. The drives are recognized - it's the first attempt to do I/O that fails.
Yeah, I won't be able to help you beyond my general suggestion -- no expereince with this specific device. I deployed a Duo v1 at my dad's house (sadly cannot run OpenWrt, only the v2 is supported), but I've never used a v2.
My understanding on the drive recongnition (and I could be wrong) is that the OS will ask the drive "what are you" and it will respond with all the relevant info, including the size. This can work even if the drive/size itself is not supported, and the error would theoretically come when you try to read/write data rather than simply reading identificatoin information.
So, based on your previous experience and the error you are experiencing, I suspect the controller may be the limiting factor here, but this is purley speculation.
Thanks, though I'm not easily concluding the controller is at fault; that link above reports 12, 14 and 16 TB drives being used with the stock Netgear 'firmware'. I don't think it's specifically related to size - though there may be another hardware compatibility issue with this specific model of drive.
Drive identification is like most other SATA commands; the controller blurts a control data block (ATA registers) at the drive and it answers back. Fortunately the error reported on OpenWRT includes the CDB, so I'll have a look at it.
As an aside, I once had a v1, was amused to discover it used a microSPARC-based SoC (apparently the result of Sun open-sourcing the microSPARC HDL in 1998). Though I worked on Solaris at Sun from 1993 past the 2010 acquisition by Oracle, that was the last SPARC system that ran at my house (and the only, AFAIK, to run Linux). It was a wheezy at the time - the v2 was a decided upgrade.
The usual suspects (spin-up power, cables, etc.) didn't appear to apply here. In particular, the ReadyNAS Duo uses a backplane for the SATA interconnect, there are no cables, It's possible the backplane has an issue, but that's a stretch.
It occurred to me, I have a Sabrent external USB3 enclosure, so let's try the disk as an external USB device (note that I'm already happily using a 14TB Seagate USB3 enclosure on the same NAS, this is hardly rocket science).
And... the drive works no better in the external enclosure, which obviates the internal SATA interconnect, and appears to obviate anything Kirkwood-specific. The disk is getting heartburn from something further up the ATA stack: